Kingdom: Environment

This section includes everything that is outside of the source code but is still critical to the security of the product that is being created. Because the issues covered by this kingdom are not directly related to source code, we separated it from the rest of the kingdoms.

WCF Misconfiguration: Transport Security Enabled

Abstract
The application uses a WCF endpoint that relies upon transport mode transfer security. Transport mode is the least secure option and should be avoided.
Explanation
Transport security specifies that confidentiality, integrity, and authentication are provided by transport-layer mechanisms (such as HTTPS). When using a transport like HTTPS, this mode has the advantage of being efficient in its performance and well understood because of its prevalence on the Internet. The disadvantage is that this kind of security is applied separately on each hop in the communication path, making the communication susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack.

WCF offers two other transfer security modes, both of which are preferable: message and transport with message credential. Message security uses the WS-Security specification to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and authentication at the message level. This provides end-to-end security and flexibility in transport methods. However, it reduces performance.

The final method, transport with message credential, is a hybrid of transport and method. Message security is used to authenticate the client and transport security is used to authenticate the server and provide confidentiality and integrity. It is nearly as efficient as pure transport security.
References
[1] J.D. Meier, Carlos Farre, Jason Taylor, Prashant Bansode, Steve Gregersen, Madhu Sundararajan, Rob Boucher Improving Patterns and Practices: Improving Web Services Security Guide Microsoft
[2] Microsoft Delivery Network (MSDN) Microsoft
[3] Standards Mapping - Common Weakness Enumeration CWE ID 285
[4] Standards Mapping - DISA Control Correlation Identifier Version 2 CCI-000068, CCI-001941, CCI-001942, CCI-002418, CCI-002420, CCI-002421, CCI-002422
[5] Standards Mapping - FIPS200 IA
[6] Standards Mapping - General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Insufficient Data Protection
[7] Standards Mapping - NIST Special Publication 800-53 Revision 4 SC-8 Transmission Confidentiality and Integrity (P1)
[8] Standards Mapping - NIST Special Publication 800-53 Revision 5 SC-8 Transmission Confidentiality and Integrity
[9] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2004 A3 Broken Authentication and Session Management
[10] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2007 A7 Broken Authentication and Session Management
[11] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2010 A3 Broken Authentication and Session Management
[12] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2013 A2 Broken Authentication and Session Management
[13] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2017 A2 Broken Authentication
[14] Standards Mapping - OWASP Top 10 2021 A07 Identification and Authentication Failures
[15] Standards Mapping - OWASP Mobile 2014 M3 Insufficient Transport Layer Protection
[16] Standards Mapping - OWASP Application Security Verification Standard 4.0 4.1.3 General Access Control Design (L1 L2 L3), 4.1.5 General Access Control Design (L1 L2 L3), 4.2.1 Operation Level Access Control (L1 L2 L3), 13.1.4 Generic Web Service Security Verification Requirements (L2 L3)
[17] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 1.1 Requirement 6.5.3, Requirement 7.2
[18] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 1.2 Requirement 6.5.7, Requirement 7.2
[19] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 2.0 Requirement 6.5.8, Requirement 7.2
[20] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 3.0 Requirement 6.5.10, Requirement 7.2
[21] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 3.1 Requirement 6.5.10, Requirement 7.2
[22] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 3.2 Requirement 6.5.10, Requirement 7.2
[23] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 3.2.1 Requirement 6.5.10, Requirement 7.2
[24] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Software Security Framework 1.0 Control Objective 4.2 - Critical Asset Protection, Control Objective 5.4 - Authentication and Access Control
[25] Standards Mapping - Payment Card Industry Software Security Framework 1.1 Control Objective 4.2 - Critical Asset Protection, Control Objective 5.4 - Authentication and Access Control
[26] Standards Mapping - SANS Top 25 2009 Porous Defenses - CWE ID 285
[27] Standards Mapping - SANS Top 25 2010 Porous Defenses - CWE ID 285
[28] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.1 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260.1 CAT II
[29] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.4 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[30] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.5 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[31] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.6 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[32] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.7 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[33] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.9 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[34] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 3.10 APP3480.2 CAT II, APP3260 CAT II
[35] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.1 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[36] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.2 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[37] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.3 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[38] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.4 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[39] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.5 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[40] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.6 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[41] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.7 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[42] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.8 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[43] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.9 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[44] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.10 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[45] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 4.11 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[46] Standards Mapping - Security Technical Implementation Guide Version 5.1 APSC-DV-000260 CAT II, APSC-DV-001620 CAT II, APSC-DV-001630 CAT II, APSC-DV-002440 CAT I, APSC-DV-002450 CAT II, APSC-DV-002460 CAT II, APSC-DV-002470 CAT II
[47] Standards Mapping - Web Application Security Consortium 24 + 2 Insufficient Authentication
[48] Standards Mapping - Web Application Security Consortium Version 2.00 Insufficient Authentication (WASC-01)
desc.config.dotnet.wcf_misconfiguration_transport_security_enabled